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1977–Orchestra leader, Guy Lombardo, dies of a heart attack in Houston, Texas, at age 75. Forming The Royal Canadians in 1924, with his brothers Carmen, Lebert, and Victor (and other musicians from his hometown), Lombardo led the group to international success. In 1928, he started the practice of playing the song Auld Lang Syne on New Year’s Eve, and for 20 years his orchestra performed on televised New Year’s Eve specials.

1138–Ly Anh Tong is enthroned as Emperor of Vietnam at the age of two, beginning a 37-year reign.

1271–Mongol ruler, Mahmud Ghazan, is born in the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division (present-day Iran). He was the son of Arghun and Quthluq Khatun, continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan.

1315–The Florentine city-state authorities sentence Dante to death, in an attempt to get the exiled writer to return to Florence.

1370–Polish King, Casimir III the Great, dies in Kraków, Poland, at age 60.

1492–Christopher Columbus learns of maize (corn) from the Indians of Cuba.

1499–The Catholicon in Tréguier is published in Brittany. The Breton-French-Latin dictionary was written by Jehan Lagadeuc in 1464. It is the first Breton dictionary, as well as the first French dictionary.

1530–The St. Felix's Flood destroys the city of Reimerswaal in the Netherlands.

1605–Guy Fawkes is arrested in the Gunpowder Plot.

1615–Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire is born in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. He was later called Ibrahim the Mad by 20th century historians, due to his reputed mental condition, which was most likely psychoneurosis.

1688–William III of England lands with a Dutch fleet at Brixham, England.

1757–In the Seven Years' War, Frederick the Great defeats the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Rossbach.

1768_The Treaty of Fort Stanwix adjusts the boundary line between Indian lands and white settlements. It was set forth in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in the Thirteen Colonies.

1780–French-American forces under Colonel LaBalme are defeated by Miami Chief Little Turtle.

1811–Salvadoran priest, José Matías Delgado, rings the bells of La Merced Church in San Salvador, calling for insurrection and the launching the 1811 Independence Movement.

1829–Technical University of Denmark (DTU) opens.

1831–Slave leader, Nat Turner, is tried, convicted, and sentenced to death in Virginia.

1851–Politician, Charles (Alexandre) Dupuy, is born in Le Puy-en-Velay, Haute-Loire, Auvergne, France. He was the 60th Prime Minister of France.

1862–President Abraham Lincoln removes George B. McClellan as Commander of the Union Army for the second and final time.

1862–In Minnesota, 303 Dakota warriors are found guilty of rape and murder of whites, and are sentenced to hang. Ultimately, 38 are executed and the others are reprieved.

1872–Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 for trying to vote for Ulysses S. Grant in the U.S. Presidential election.

1885–American historian, author, Will Durant, is born in North Adams, Massachusetts. He is best known for The Story of Civilization.

1895–George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.

1898–Filipinos on Negros Island revolt against Spanish rule and establish the short-lived Republic of Negros.

1900–Actress, Natalie Schafer, is born in Red Bank, New Jersey. She is best known for the role Eunice "Lovey" Wentworth Howell on the sitcom Gilligan's Island. She appeared in the films The Snake Pit, Female on the Beach, Forever, Darling, Bernardine, Back Street, and Susan Slade.

1905–Actor, Joel (Albert) McCrea, is born in South Pasadena, California. He appeared in the films These Three, Foreign Correspondent, Sullivan's Travels, Ramrod, Wichita, The Oklahoman, The Tall Stranger, and Ride the High Country.

1911–After declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on September 29, 1911, Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica.

1911–Singing cowboy, Roy Rogers, is born Leonard Franklin Slye in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was a cowboy actor who was one of the most popular Western stars of his era. Known as the "King of the Cowboys," he appeared in over 100 films and on radio and television in episodes of The Roy Rogers Show. Most of the time he appeared with his wife, Dale Evans, his golden palomino, Trigger, and his German Shepherd dog, Bullet.

1912–Woodrow Wilson is elected President of the United States.

1913–King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title of Ludwig III.

1913–Actress, Vivien Leigh, is born Vivian Mary Hartley in Darjeeling, Bengal Presidency, British India. She is best known for the coveted role of Scarlet O’Hara in the film Gone with the Wind. She also appeared in the films Dark Journey, A Yank at Oxford, 21 Days, Waterloo Bridge, That Hamilton Woman, Anna Karenina, A Streetcar Named Desire, The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone, and Ship of Fools. She was married to actor, Sir Lawrence Olivier.

1913–Charactor actor, John (Irwin) McGiver, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films The Gazebo, Love in a Goldfish Bowl, Breakfsst at Tiffany’s, Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation, The Manchurian Candidate, My Six Loves, The Glass Bottom Boat, Midnight Cowboy, and Mame.

1914–France and the British Empire declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

1916–The Kingdom of Poland is proclaimed by the Emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

1916–The Everett Massacre takes place in Everett, Washington, as political differences lead to a shoot-out between the Industrial Workers of the World organizers and local law enforcement.

1917–In Tallinn, Estonia, Communist leader, Jaan Anvelt, leads revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government.

1917–St. Tikhon of Moscow is elected the Patriarch of Moscow and the Russian Orthodox Church.

1921–Fawzia Fuad of Egypt is born at Ras el-Tin Palace in Alexandria, Sultanate of Egypt. She was an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

1925–Secret agent, Sidney Reilly, the first "super-spy" of the 20th century, is executed by the OGPU (the secret police of the Soviet Union).

1926–Art critic, John (Peter) Berger, is born in Stoke Newington, London, England. His essay on art criticism, Ways of Seeing, written as an accompaniment to a BBC-TV series, is often used as a university text.

1930–Sinclair Lewis receives a telephone call from a Swedish newspaper correspondent, telling him he is the first American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Lewis thinks it is a prank and begins imitating the man's accent.

1930–The 3rd Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: All Quiet on the Western Front; Best Actor: George Arliss for Disraeli; Best Actress: Norma Shearer for The Divorcee; Best Director: Lewis Milestone for All Quiet on the Western Front. The ceremonies are held at the Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles, California. The host is Conrad Nagel.

1931–R&B singer, Ike Turner, is born Izear Luster Turner, Jr. in Clarksdale, Mississippi. An early pioneer of 1950s rock and roll, he is most popularly known for his work in the 1960s and 1970s with his then-wife, Tina Turner, in the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. Their hits include It’s Gonna Work Out Fine, River Deep Mountain High, I’ve Been Loving You Too Long, and Proud Mary.

1935–Parker Brothers introduces the game of Monopoly.

1936–Record producer, Billy (Norris) Sherrill, is born in Phil Campbell, Alabama. He was a songwriter and arranger, who is most famous for his association with country artists, notably Tammy Wynette and George Jones. Sherrill and business partner, Glenn Sutton, are regarded as the defining influences of the countrypolitan sound: a smooth amalgamation of pop and country music that was popular during the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s.

1940–The British armed merchant cruiser, HMS Jervis Bay, is sunk by the German pocket battleship, Admiral Scheer.

1940–Actress, Elke Sommer, is born Elke von Schletz in Berlin, Germany. She appeared in the films Don’t Bother to Knock, The Prize, A Shot in the Dark, The Oscar, and Ten Little Indians.

1942–Folk-rock singer, Art Garfunkel, is born Arthur Ira Garfunkel in Queens, New York. He is best known as half of the duo of Simon & Garfunkel. Their hits include The Sound of Silence, Homeward Bound, I Am a Rock, Scarborough Fair, Mrs. Robinson, The Boxer, Bridge Over Troubled Water, America, and My Little Town. As an actor, he appeared in the films Catch-22, Carnal Knowledge, Bad Timing, Boxing Helena, 54, and Arthur.

1942–Entertainer, George M. Cohan, dies of cancer in New York, New York, at age 64. He began his career as a child, performing with his parents and sister in a vaudeville act known as "The Four Cohans." Beginning with Little Johnny Jones in 1904, he wrote, composed, produced, and appeared in more than three dozen Broadway musicals. Cohan published more than 300 songs during his lifetime, including the standards Over There, Give My Regards to Broadway, The Yankee Doodle Boy, and You're a Grand Old Flag. His life and music were depicted in the Academy Award-winning film Yankee Doodle Dandy and the Broadway musical George M!

1943–Actor and playwright, Sam Shepard, is born Samuel Shepard Rogers III in Fort Sheridan, Illinois. Shepard grew up a U.S. Army brat, moving from base to base around the country, until his father retired from the military and settled on a ranch in California. Shepard later joined a touring company of actors and moved to New York City. It was there that he began writing one-act plays that were produced off-off-Broadway. He has been the recipient of numerous awards, including the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, an Academy Award, 10 Obie Awards, an American Academy of Arts and Letters Award, a Guggenheim Fellowship Award, and an American Theater Hall of Fame Award. He appeared in the films Zabriskie Point, Days of Heaven, Resurrection, Raggedy Man, Frances, The Right Stuff, Fool for Love, Crimes of the Heart, Baby Boom, September, Steel Magnolias, Thunderheart, The Pelican Brief, Safe Passage, Simpatico, All the Pretty Horses, Black Hawk Down, The Notebook, Don’t Come Knocking, and August: Osage County.

1945–Colombia joins the United Nations.

1946–John F. Kennedy is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives at the age of 29.

1946–Musician, Gram Parsons, is born Cecil Ingram Connor III in Winter Haven, Florida. He is best known for his work with The Byrds and The Flying Burrito Brothers. He popularized what he called "Cosmic American Music": a hybrid of country, rhythm & blues, soul, folk, and rock.

1946–Futurist painter, Joseph Stella, dies of heart failure in New York, New York, at age 69. He had suffered from heart disease for more than five years. He is best known for his paintings of the Brooklyn Bridge.

1947–Donnie McDougall, of The Guess Who, is born Donald C. McDougall in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

1947–Peter Noone, of Herman’s Hermits, is born Peter Blair Denis Bernard Noone in Davyhulme, Lancashire, England. The group’s hits include I'm into Something Good, Mrs. Brown You've Got a Lovely Daughter, I'm Henry the Eighth I Am, Silhouettes", Can't You Hear My Heartbeat, Wonderful World, There's a Kind of Hush, and A Must to Avoid. He appeared in the films Hold On! and Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter.

1950–In the Korean War, British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade successfully halt the advancing Chinese 117th Division during the Battle of Pakchon.

1955–After being destroyed in World War II, the rebuilt Vienna State Opera reopens with a performance of Beethoven's Fidelio.

1955–Socialite and TV personality, Kris Jenner, is born Kristen Mary Houghton in San Diego, California. She is best known for starring in the reality TV series Keeping Up with the Kardashians. She was married to lawyer Robert Kardashian, and Olympic champion, Bruce Jenner.

1956–Jazz pianist, Art Tatum, dies of kidney failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 47. He was hailed for the technical proficiency of his performances, which set a new standard for jazz piano virtuosity.

1959–Singer-songwriter, Bryan (Guy) Adams, is born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. His hits include Straight from the Heart, Cuts Like a Knife, and (Everything I Do) I Do It for You.

1960–Actress, Tilda Swinton, is born Katherine Mathilda Swinton in London, England. She has appeared in the films The Last of England, War Requiem, The Garden, Edward II, Orlando, Blue, The War Zone, The Beach, Vanilla Sky, The Deep End, Adaptation, The Chronicles of Narnia, Broken Flowers, Burn After Reading, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, Moonrise Kingdom, and The Grand Budapest Hotel.

1960–Actor, Ward Bond, dies of a heart attack in Dallas, Texas, at age 57. He is best known for his starring role on the TV series Wagon Train. He appeared in the films Gone with the Wind, The Grapes of Wrath, The Maltese Falcon, A Guy Named Joe, 3 Godfathers, It’s a Wonderful Life, Fort Apache, The Quiet Man, Hondo, Johnny Guitar, Mister roberts, The Searchers, and Rio Bravo.

1960–Singer, Johnny Horton, dies in a car accident in Milano, Texas, at age 35. His hits include When It’s Springtime in Alaska (It’s Forty Below), The Battle of New Orleans, Sink the Bismark, and North to Alaska.

1960–Film director and producer, Mack Sennett, dies in Woodland Hills, California, at age 80. He is known as the innovator of slapstick comedy in film. He put together the Keystone Cops, who could run, leap, fall, jump and tumble well enough to outmaneuver moving cars, speeding trains, and anything else that got in their way. He was one of the first directors to shoot outdoors on location, and he cranked his cameras at a little less than the normal speed to make his films, “a shade faster and fizzier than life.” He had a hard time making the transition to talking pictures, however, and spent the end of his life in a show business retirement home, living on social security checks.

1963–Brian Epstein flies to the U.S. for a promotional visit. While there, he meets with TV variety show host, Ed Sullivan, who wants to introduce his American audience to the latest crazy fad from overseas, The Beatles. To Sullivan’s astonishment, Epstein insists that The Beatles be given top billing. Eventually they work out a deal: The Beatles will be given top billing in return for three appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show (two live, one taped) at a fee that is well below normal (only $10,000). As it turns out, this proves to be a fantastic bargain for The Beatles, who would reap seemingly instantaneous fame from their appearances on Sullivan’s television show.

1963–Actress, Tatum (Beatrice) O'Neal, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films Paper Moon, Tne Bad News Bears, Nickelodeon, Little Darlings, Little Noises, and The Runaways. Her father is actor, Ryan O’Neal, and her mother was actress, Joanna Moore. She was married to tennis player, John McEnroe.

1964–A chart topper: (There’s) Always Something There to Remind Me by Sandie Shaw.

1965–Model, Famke (Beumer) Janssen, is born in Amstelveen, the Netherlands. After retiring from modeling in the early 1990s, Janssen had guest roles on several TV series, including a starring role on Star Trek: The Next Generation. She appeared in the films Fathers & Sons, GoldenEye, Lord of Illusions, The Gingerbread Man, and Celebrity.

1967–The Hither Green rail crash in the United Kingdom kills 49 people. Among the survivors, however, is Robin Gibb of The Bee Gees.

1968–Richard M. Nixon is elected the 34th President of the United States.

1968–Actor, Sam Rockwell, is born in San Mateo, California. He has appeared in the films Last Exit to Brooklyn, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Strictly Business, Box of Moonlight, Lawn Dogs, Celebrity, The Green Mile, Charlie’s Angels, Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, Matchstick Men, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Frost/Nixon, The Winning Season, Moon, Conviction, Cowboys & Aliens, and The Way, Way Back.

1970–The United States Military Assistance Command in Vietnam reports the American soldier death toll at 24, the lowest weekly report in five years.

1971–Actor, Corin Nemec, is born Joseph Charles Nemec IV in Little Rock, Arkansas. He is best known for the title role on the TV series Parker Lewis Can't Lose, and the role of Jonas Quinn on Stargate SG-1. He appeared in the films Tucker: A Man and His Dream, I Know My Name Is Steven, and Operation Dumbo Drop.

1974–Character actor, Stafford Repp, dies of a heart attack in Inglewood, California, at age 56. He is best known for the role of Police Chief Clancy O'Hara on the TV series Batman. He appeared in the films Not as a Stranger, The Price of Fear, I Want to Live!, The Brothers Karamazov, Hot Spell, The Explosive Generation, and Batman: The Movie.

1977–Orchestra leader, Guy Lombardo, dies of a heart attack in Houston, Texas, at age 75. Forming The Royal Canadians in 1924, with his brothers Carmen, Lebert, and Victor (and other musicians from his hometown), Lombardo led the group to international success. In 1928, he started the practice of playing the song Auld Lang Syne on New Year’s Eve, and for 20 years his orchestra performed on televised New Year’s Eve specials.

1979–Cartoonist, Al Capp, dies of emphysema in South Hampton, New Hampshire, at age 70. He is best known for his comic strip "Li’l Abner."

1982–Actor, Jacques Tati, dies of a pulmonary embolism in Paris, France, at age 75. Throughout his long career, he worked as a comic actor, writer, and director. With his trademark raincoat, umbrella, and pipe, Hulot is among the most memorable comic characters in cinema. His films include Jour de fête, Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot, Mon Oncle, Play Time, Traffic, and Parade.

1983–The Byford Dolphin diving bell accident kills five people and leaves one other person severely injured.

1984–A chart topper: Purple Rain by Prince & The Revolution.

1986–The USS Rentz, USS Reeves, and USS Oldendorf visit Qingdao (Tsing Tao), China, in the first U.S. Naval visit to China since 1949.

1987–(Paul) Kevin Jonas, of Jonas Brothers, is born in Teaneck, New Jersey.

1987–British TV personality, Eamonn Andrews, dies of heart failure in London, England, at age 64. He hosted a chat show on ITV, The Eamonn Andrews Show, for five years in the 1960s. He is best known as the presenter of the England's version of This Is Your Life from 1955 to 1987.

1989–Classical pianist and composer, Vladimir Horowitz, dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 86. His technique, use of tone color, and the excitement of his playing are considered legendary. He is widely considered one of the greatest pianists of all time. In 1962, Horowitz embarked on a series of acclaimed recordings for Columbia Records. The most famous are his 1965 return concert at Carnegie Hall, and a 1968 recording from his television special, Vladimir Horowitz: a Concert at Carnegie Hall, televised by CBS-TV.

1989–Staff Sergeant, Green Beret, and singer, Barry Sadler, dies of complications from a gunshot injury in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, at age 49. He is best known for his hit song Ballad of the Green Berets.

1990–Rabbi and activist, Meir Kahane, is murdered by an Arab gunman in a hotel in Manhattan, New York, at age 58. Kahane founded the Jewish Defense League in 1968.

1991–Actor, Fred MacMurray, dies of cancer in Santa Monica, California, at age 83. He is best known for his starring role in the TV series My Three Sons. He appeared in the films Remember the Night, Double Indemnity, The Miracle of the Bells, Callaway Went Thataway, The Caine Mutiny, The Shaggy Dog, The Apartment, The Absent-Minded Professor, Son of Flubber, Kisses for My President, Follow Me, Boys!, and The Happiest Millionaire. He was married to actress, June Haver.

1995–André Dallaire attempts to assassinate Canadian Prime Minister, Jean Chrétien. He is thwarted when the Prime Minister's wife locks the door.

1996–Pakistani President, Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari, dismisses the government of Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, and dissolves the National Assembly of Pakistan.

2000–Environmentalist, David Brower, dies in Berkeley, California, at age 88. The day before he died, he cast his absentee ballot for Ralph Nader in the presidental election. He served as the President of Sierra Club Foundation. He also founded the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth, the League of Conservation Voters, and Earth Island Institute.

2002–Billy Guy, of The Coasters, dies in Clark County, Nevada, at age 66. The group’s hits include Youngblood, Searchin’, Yakety Yak, Charlie Brown, Along Came Jones, and Poison Ivy.

2003–Bobby Hatfield, of Righteous Brothers, dies of a heart attack in Kalamazoo, Michigan, at age 63. The duo’s hits include Little Latin Lupe Lu, You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin', Unchained Melody, Ebb Tide, and (You're My) Soul and Inspiration.

2003–Green River Killer, Gary Ridgway, pleads guilty to 48 counts of murder.

2005–Guitarist, Link Wray, dies of heart failure in Copenhagen, Denmark, at age 76. Building on the distorted electric guitar sound of early records, his instrumental hit, Rumble, by Link Wray and his Ray Men in 1958, popularized the power chord, the major modus operandi of modern rock guitarists, which lead to punk and heavy rock.

2006–Former President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and his co-defendants (Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar), are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for the role in the massacre of the 148 Shi'a Muslims in 1982.

2007–China's first lunar satellite, Chang'e 1, goes into orbit around the Moon.

2007–The Android mobile operating system is unveiled by Google.

2008–Author, Michael Crichton, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 66. He is best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. Among his workds are The Andromeda Strain, Congo, Sphere, Jurassic Park, Rising Sun, Disclosure, and The Lost World.

2009–U.S. Army Major, Nidal Malik Hasan, murders 13 military personnel and wounds 32 others at Fort Hood, Texas, in the deadliest mass shooting at a U.S. military installation.

2010–Actress, Jill Clayburgh, dies of leukemia in Salisbury, Connecticut, at age 66. She appeared in the films The Wedding Party, Portnoy’s Complaint, The Terminal Man, Hustling, Gable and Lombard, Silver Streak, Semi-Tough, An Unmarried Woman, Starting Over, I’m Dancing as Fast as I Can, Naked in New York, and Rich in Love.

2013–India launches the Mars Orbiter Mission, its first interplanetary probe.

2013–More than 1,500 works of art, believed to have been missing since they were seized by the Nazis, are discovered in an apartment in Munich, Germany. The artwork, valued at an estimated 1.35 billion dollars, includes a previously unknown piece by Marc Chagall, as well as works by Picasso, Matisse, Renoir, Klee, and many other 20th century masters. The works of art are among those classified as "degenerate" by the Nazis. This designation was reserved for modern and/or abstract works which Hitler deemed "deviant," and likely to have a corrupting influence on the German people. It is now believed that many more such pieces originally presumed to be lost may still be hiding in other nondescript German dwellings.

2013–Chef, Charlie Trotter, dies of a stroke in Chicago, Illinois, at age 54. His books on cooking include Charlie Trotter's Vegetables, Charlie Trotter's Seafood, Gourmet Cooking for Dummies, and Charlie Trotter's Desserts.

2015–An iron ore tailings dam bursts in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, flooding a valley, causing mudslides in the nearby village of Bento Rodrigues, and killing up to nine people and leaving 19 missing.

2016–Republican presidential candidate, Donald Trump, is rushed off stage by U.S. Secret Service agents at a campaign rally in Reno, Nevada. A man is escorted out of the venue by security officers shortly following the incident.

2016–A mysterious "pinging noise" is detected in the Arctic by the Canadian military.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Polish King, Casimir III the Great; Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire; Charles Dupuy; Natalie Schafer; Roy Rogers; Vivien Leigh; St. Tikhon of Moscow; Ike Turner; Art Garfunkel; Sam Shepherd; Gram Parsons; Peter Noone; Tilda Swinton; Mack Sennett; (There’s) Always Something There to Remind Me by Sandie Shaw; Sam Rockwell; poster for Mon Oncle; Vladimir Horowitz; Fred MacMurray; David Brower; Link Wray; and Jill Clayburgh.

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