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1981–The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C. The controversial design was the work of Maya Lin who was an architecture student at Yale at the time. The memorial consists of two black granite walls inscribed with the names of 57,939 American soldiers killed or missing in the Vietnam war, ordered according to the date they were lost.

354–Saint Augustine is born in Tagaste, Numidia (present-day Algeria).

1002–English King Ethelred II orders the killing of all Danes in England, known present-day as the St. Brice's Day massacre.

1093–Malcolm III of Scotland dies in the Battle of Alnwick in Northumberland, England, at age 62. Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth.

1160–Louis VII of France marries Adela of Champagne.

1312–Edward III, King of England (1327-1377), is born at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England. His long reign of 50 years saw vital developments in legislation and government, the evolution of the English parliament, and the ravages of the Black Death.

1462–Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia, dies in Eckartsberga, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, at age 30.

1493–William IV, Duke of Bavaria, is born in Munich, Germany.

1553–Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, and four others, including Lady Jane Grey, are accused of high treason and sentenced to death under Catholic Queen "Bloody" Mary I.

1642–In the First English Civil War, the Royalist forces withdraw in the face of the Parliamentarian army and fail to take London.

1760–Jiaqing Emperor of China is born at the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, China.

1775–During the American Revolutionary War, patriot revolutionary forces, under General Richard Montgomery, occupy Montreal, Canada.

1780–Ranjit Singh is born in Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl (present-day Pakistan). He was the founder of the Sikh Empire, which came to power on the Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. The Empire, based in the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849.

1810–Marie Joséphine Louise of Savoy dies of edema at Hartwell House, Buckinghamshire, England, at age 57. She was the wife of the future King Louis XVIII of France. She was a princess of Savoy by birth, became Countess of Provence upon her marriage in 1771, and then titular Queen of the French, when her husband's nephew, the titular King Louis XVII of France, died in 1795.

1831–Philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, dies quietly in his sleep of cholera in Germany.

1841–James Braid first sees a demonstration of animal magnetism, which leads to his study of the subject he eventually calls hypnotism.

1843–Mount Rainier erupts in Washington State.

1848–Prince Albert I, Monarch of Monaco (1889-1922), is born Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi in Paris, France.

1850–Essayist, novelist, and poet, Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson, is born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He is best known for his classic novels Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In 1888 he chartered a sloop and sailed with his family across the Pacific in search of a climate in which he could control his tuberculosis. He found this in Samoa, where he lived happily and productively for the last four years of his life.

1864–The new Constitution of Greece is adopted.

1887–Bloody Sunday clashes in central London, England.

1901–The Caister Lifeboat Disaster takes place.

1912–Playwright, Eugene Ionesco, is born in Slatina, Romania.

1914–Mary Phelps Jacob patents the elastic brassiere in New York.

1914–In the Zaian War, Berber tribesmen inflict the heaviest defeat of French forces in Morocco, at the Battle of El Herri.

1916–Prime Minister Billy Hughes of Australia is expelled from the Labor Party over his support for conscription.

1918–Allied troops occupy Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

1920–Character actor, Jack Elam, is born William Scott Elam in Miami, Arizona. He appeared in the films The Sundowners, Rawhide, Rancho Notorious, High Noon, Kansas City Confidential, Cattle Queen of Montana, The Man from Laramie, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Once Upon a Time in the West, and Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid.

1922–Game show host and television announcer, Jack Narz, is born John Lawrence Narz, Jr. in Louisville, Kentucky. He was the elder brother of announcer, Tom Kennedy, and the former brother-in-law of television personality, Bill Cullen.

1927–After seven years of construction and over $48 million in expense, the Holland Tunnel, New York City’s connection to Jersey City, New Jersey, opens to traffic. It was named after the chief engineer of construction, Clifford Milburn Holland, who died before the tunnel was completed.

1932–Actor, Richard Mulligan, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of Burt Campbell on the sitcom Soap. He appeared in the films 40 Pounds of Trouble, Love with the Proper Stranger, The Group, Little Big Man, S.O.B., Teachers, and The Heavenly Kid. He was married to actress, Joan Hackett.

1934–Television producer, Garry (Kent) Marshall, is born in the Bronx, New York. His work in TV includes The Danny Thomas Show (aka Make Room for Daddy), The Joey Bishop Show, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Lucy Show, The Odd Couple, Happy Days, Laverne and Shirley, Mork & Mindy, and Joanie Loves Chachi. His work as a film director includes Young Doctors in Love, The Flamingo Kid, Nothing In Common, Overboard, Beaches, Pretty Woman, Frankie and Johnny, The Other Sister, Runaway Bride, The Princess Diaries, and Raising Helen. His daughters are actress-director, Penny Marshall, and TV producer, Ronny Marshall Hallin.

1940–The Walt Disney animated film, Fantasia, has its world premiere in New York.

1941–During World War II, the aircraft carrier, HMS Ark Royal, is torpedoed by U-81, sinking the following day.

1942–U.S. and Japanese ships engage in an intense, close-quarters surface naval engagement during the Guadalcanal Campaign.

1942–President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a measure lowering the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.

1947–The Soviet Union completes development of the AK-47, one of the first proper assault rifles.

1950–General Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, President of Venezuela, is assassinated in Caracas.

1954–Great Britain captures the first-ever Rugby League World Cup in Paris, France, in front of around 30,000 spectators.

1954–Actor, Chris Noth is born Christopher David Noth in Madison, Wisconsin. He is best known for the roles of Detective Mike Logan on the TV series Law & Order, and Mr. Big on Sex and the City. He appeared in the Broadway revival of That Championship Season, also starring Jason Patric, Jim Gaffigan, and Kiefer Sutherland. As of 2009, he has starred in the TV series The Good Wife.

1955–ProRodeo Hall of Famer, Roy Cooper, is born in Hobbs, New Mexico. He was the PRCA's Rookie of the Year in 1976. Cooper won the All-Around Cowboy Championship in 1983, claiming seven individual discipline championships, including six tie-down roping titles. Cooper earned the nickname of "Super Looper" for his roping ability.

1956–The U.S. Supreme Court declares Alabama laws requiring segregated buses illegal, thus ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

1966–In response to Fatah raids against Israelis near the West Bank border, Israel launches an attack on the village of As-Samu.

1968–Rolling Stone, Brian Jones, buys Cotchford Farms in Sussex, England, where A.A. Milne wrote Winnie the Pooh. There are statues of Pooh characters on the grounds.

1969–Anti-war protesters in Washington, D.C. stage a symbolic March Against Death.

1969–Having purchased the island of Dorinch, off the coast of County Mayo, Ireland, for £1,500, John Lennon declares any hippie who wishes is free to live there. A number of hippies do show up to take a look.

1969–Actor, Gerard (James) Butler, is born in Paisley, Scotland. Butler left the practice of law to take small acting roles in the mid-1990s. His breakout role came in 2007, as King Leonidas in 300. He has also appeared in the films Mrs. Brown, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life, The Phantom of the Opera, and The Ugly Truth.

1974–Activist, Karen Silkwood, dies in an auto accident near Crescent, Oklahoma, at age 28. Some journalists have theorized that Silkwood's car was rammed from behind by another vehicle, with the intent to cause an accident that would result in her death. Skid marks from Silkwood's car were present on the road, suggesting that she was trying to get back onto the road after being pushed from behind.

1970–A 150-mph tropical cyclone hits the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh), killing an estimated 500,000 people in one night.

1974–Ronald DeFeo, Jr. murders his entire family in Amityville, Long Island, New York, in the house that would become known as The Amityville Horror.

1974–A chart topper: Whatever Gets You Through the Night by John Lennon.

1982–Ray Mancini defeats Duk Koo Kim in a boxing match held in Las Vegas, Nevada. Kim's subsequent death (on November 17th) leads to significant changes in the sport.

1982–The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans.

1984–Architect, William Pereira, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 76. He designed the Transamerica Pyramid building in San Francisco, California.

1985–The volcano, Nevado del Ruiz, erupts and melts a glacier, causing a lahar (volcanic mudslide) that buries Armero, Colombia, killing approximately 23,000 people.

1985–Xavier Suárez is sworn in as Miami's first Cuban-born Mayor.

1986–The Compact of Free Association becomes law, granting the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands independence from the United States.

1989–Hans-Adam II, the present Prince of Liechtenstein, begins his reign after the death of his father.

1990–The World Wide Web (the Internet) begins.

1990–In Aramoana, New Zealand, David Gray shoots 13 people dead in a massacre, before being tracked down and killed by police the next day.

1992–The High Court of Australia rules in Dietrich vs The Queen that although there is no absolute right to have publicly funded counsel, in most circumstances a judge should grant any request for an adjournment or stay when an accused is unrepresented.

1994–In a referendum, voters in Sweden decide to join the European Union.

1995–A truck-bomb explodes outside of a U.S. operated Saudi Arabian National Guard training center in Riyadh, killing five Americans and two Indians. A group called the Islamic Movement for Change claims responsibility.

2000–Philippine House Speaker, Manny Villar, passes the articles of impeachment against Philippine President Joseph Estrada.

2000–The first official Beatles website, www.thebeatles.com, which offers a stunning array of multimedia pages and activities related to the 27 songs appearing on the Beatles’ compilation album, 1, goes online. The web site utilizes up-to-date web technology to offer a wonderful look at The Beatles and their music. Its first offering is a stunning array of multimedia pages and activities related to the 27 songs appearing on the Beatles’ compilation CD 1.

2001–In the first such act since World War II, President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against foreigners suspected of connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.

2007–Make-up artist, Monty Westmore, dies of prostate cancer in Woodland Hills, California, at age 84. He was part of the third generation of the Westmore family of American make-up artists in film and television, who worked on over 75 films and TV series since 1950. Westmore spent seven seasons as make-up artist on The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. He later served as Paul Newman's personal make-up artist on 17 of the actor's films over the course of nearly three decades.

2012–A total solar eclipse occurrs in parts of Australia and the South Pacific.

2015–A set of six coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris, France, include multiple shootings, explosions, and a hostage crisis in the 10th and 11th arrondissements of the city. At least 129 people are killed and more than 350 others are injured. Six of the seven terrorists blow themselves up with suicide bomb belts; the other is killed by law enforcement. A state of emergency is declared in France and its borders are closed.

2015–WT1190F, a temporary satellite of Earth, impacts just southeast of Sri Lanka.

2016–Donald Trump’s campaign manager, Kellyanne Conway, asks transitioning U.S. President Barack Obama and former U.S. first lady, Hillary Clinton, to help stop the violent and lawless protests against the presidential election outcome.

2016–The ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud, south of Mosul, Iraq, is recaptured by the Iraqi Army after heavy fighting with ISIL militants.

2016–A 7.8 earthquake strikes north of Christchurch, New Zealand, triggering tsunami warnings and causing widespread damage.

2016–Musician, Leon Russell, dies in his sleep in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 74. He recorded as a session musician and sideman, as well as having a succussful solo career. He is well known for his performances with Joe Cocker’s Mad Dogs and Englishman tour in the early 1970s. He has 31 albums to his credit and recorded around 430 songs. Those songs include A Song for You, Tightrope, Superstar, Hummingbird, A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall, This Masquerade, and Roll Away the Stone.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Saint Augustine; Mount Rainier erupts in Washington; the first elastic brassiere; an ad for Walt Disney's Fantasia; the Island of Dorinch, off the coast of County Mayo, Ireland; Nevado del Ruiz erupts in Columbia; The Beatles' official logo; and Leon Russell.

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