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2001–Musician, George Harrison, dies of brain cancer at the home of a close friend in Los Angeles, California, at age 58. His wife Olivia, and his son Dhani, were by his side. George had been carrying on an ongoing battle with cancer for several years. He was a member of The Beatles, a solo artist, film producer, and spiritual seeker. George’s songs include Don’t Bother Me, I Want to Tell You, Within You Without You, While My Guitar Gently Weeps, Something, and Here Comes the Sun. He introduced the sitar to Beatles music, signaling his introduction to what would become his lifelong pursuit of Eastern philosophy and the Hara Krishna religion. His last words were “Love one another.”

561–King Chlothar I dies at Compiègne. The Merovingian dynasty is continued by his four sons, Charibert I, Guntram, Sigebert I, and Chilperic I, who divide the Frankish Kingdom.

618–The Tang dynasty scores a decisive victory over their rival, Xue Rengao, at the Battle of Qianshuiyuan.

800–Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.

903–The Abbasid army, under Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Katib, deals a crushing defeat to the Qarmatians at the Battle of Hama.

997–Korean ruler, Seongjong of Goryeo, dies at age 38. He was succeeded by his nephew, Mokjong.

1376–Charles IV, King of Bohemia (1346-1378) and Holy Roman Emperor.

1394–Korean King Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Joseon dynasty, moves the capital from Kaesong to Hanyang (present-day Seoul).

1549–The papal conclave of 1549-1550 begins.

1612–The Battle of Swally takes place, loosening the Portuguese Empire's hold on India.

1729–Natchez Indians massacre 138 French men, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of present-day Natchez, Mississippi.

1776–In the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia, comes to an end with the arrival of British reinforcements.

1777–San Jose, California, is founded as Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.

1781–The crew of the British slave ship, Zong, murder 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea to claim insurance.

1783–A 5.3 earthquake strikes New Jersey.

1807–John VI of Portugal flees Lisbon from advancing Napoleonic forces during the Peninsular War, transferring the Portuguese court to Brazil.

1830–An armed rebellion against Russia's rule begins in Poland.

1847–The Sonderbund is defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons, under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.

1847–Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 other missionaries are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.

1850–The treaty, Punctation of Olmütz, is signed in Olomouc. Prussia capitulates to Austria, which will take over the leadership of the German Confederation.

1864–At the Sand Creek massacre, Colorado volunteers, led by Colonel John Chivington, massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho non-combatants inside Colorado Territory.

1870–Compulsory education is proclaimed in England.

1872–The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.

1877–Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

1885–The end of Third Anglo-Burmese War also ends the Burmese monarchy.

1890–The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan, and the first Diet convenes.

1893–The Ziqiang Institute (present-day Wuhan University) is founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing dynasty China, after his memorial to the throne is approved by the Qing Government.

1898–Novelist, poet, medieval scholar, lay theologian, and lecturer, C.S. Lewis, is born Clive Staples Lewis in Dublin, Ireland. Lewis held academic positions at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities. While on the faculty at Oxford, he became close friends with fellow faculty member, J.R.R. Tolkien: they were both members of the informal literary group, the Inklings. Through the influence of his friendship with Tolkein, Lewis found an invigorated faith, and reconciled with the Anglican Church after a long absence. This had a profound affect on his work. He made inspirational radio broadcasts during World War II, which brought him wide praise. Lewis is best known for his Chronicles of Narnia book series, which has been translated into more than 30 languages, and adapted for stage, television, radio, and film.

1899–The FC Barcelona Association football club is founded.

1902–The Pittsburgh Stars defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 11-0, at the Pittsburgh Coliseum, winning the first championship associated with an American national professional football league.

1908–Politician, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., is born in New Haven, Connecticut. He was the first person from New York of African-American descent to be elected to the U.S. Congress, and the fourth African American from the North to be elected in the Post-Reconstruction Era. He became a powerful national politician of the Democratic Party, and was re-elected numerous times, serving as a national spokesman on civil rights and social issues.

1917–Country singer, Merle (Robert) Travis, is born in Rosewood, Kentucky. His hits include Divorce Me C.O.D., So Round, Fo Firm, So Fully Packed, and Wildwood Flower. His design for a solid body electric guitar with a single row of tuners, built for him by Paul Bigsby, is thought to have inspired longtime Travis pal Leo Fender's design of the famous Broadcaster in 1950. The Travis-Bigsby guitar resides in the Music Hall of Fame Museum.

1920–Chemist and academic, Joseph Shivers, is born Joseph Clois Shivers, Jr. in Marlton, New Jersey. He was the developer of Spandex in the 1950s, while employed at DuPont.

1921–Model, actress, and singer, Dagmar, is born Virginia Ruth Egnor in Yawkey, West Virginia. As a statuesque, busty blonde, she became the first major female star of television, receiving a lot of press coverage during the 1950s. She was married to bandleader, Dick Hinds.

1924–Italian composer, Giacomo Puccini, dies of throat cancer in Brussels, Belgium, at age 66. He wrote the operas La bohème, Tosca, and Madame Butterfly.

1929–U.S. Admiral Richard E. Byrd leads the first expedition to fly over the South Pole.

1933–Bluesman, John Mayall, is born in Macclesfield, England.

1941–Denny Doherty, of The Mamas & The Papas, is born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

1944–Felix Cavaliere, of The Young Rascals, is born in Pelham, New York.

1943–The second session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ), held to determine the post-war ordering of the country, concludes in Jajce (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina).

1944–The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.

1944–During World War II, Albania is liberated by partisan forces.

1944–Felix Cavaliere, of The Young Rascals, is born in Pelham, New York.

1945–The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia is declared.

1946–The All Indonesia Centre of Labour Organizations (SOBSI) is founded in Jakarta.

1947–The United Nations General Assembly approves a plan for the partition of Palestine.

1949–Comedian-actor, Garry (Emmanuel) Shandling, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his work on TV’s It's Garry Shandling's Show and The Larry Sanders Show. He appeared in the films Love Affair, Mixed Nuts, Hurlyburly, Town & Country, Zoolander, and Iron Man 2.

1950–North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

1952–President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict of the Korean War.

1952–Actor, Jeff Fahey, is born Jeffrey David Fahey in Olean, New York. Fahey's career started with his winning a full scholarship to the Joffrey Ballet School. His first roles were in theaters across the country, and on Broadway. He has appeared in the films Silverado, Psycho III, Impulse, White Hunter Black Heart, The Lawnmower Man, Sketch Artist, and Wyatt Earp.

1959--The 2nd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Bobby Darin for Mack the Knife; Album of the Year: Frank Sinatra for Come Dance with Me!; Song of the Year: Jimmy Driftwood for The Battle of New Orleans; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Frank Sinatra for Come Dance with Me!; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Ella Fitzgerald for But Not for Me; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Mormon Tabernacle Choir for The Battle Hymn of the Republic; Best Country & Western Performance: Johnny Horton for The Battle of New Orleans; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Dinah Washington for What a Diff'rence a Day Makes; Best Instrumental Performance: André Previn and David Rose for Like Young; Best New Artist: Bobby Darin. The ceremonies are held in Los Angeles, California and New York. There is no host.

1960–Paul McCartney and Pete Best are arrested by West German police for attempted arson. While moving their personal belongings out of the dark Bambi-Filmkunst Theater and moving to Peter Eckhorn’s Top Ten Club, Paul and Pete set the rotting tapestry lining on the wall on fire for light. They left with the fabric still smoldering. Within a short time, Paul is arrested for attempting to set the theater on fire, and Pete soon joins him in custody. They are released the next morning, but are shortly taken into custody again and notified that they are being deported. The next night, they are flown back to London, England, and they have just enough money to make it back to Liverpool. Paul carries his guitar on his back, but Pete has to leave his drums behind.

1961–In the Mercury-Atlas 5 Mission, Enos, a chimpanzee, is launched into space. The spacecraft orbits the Earth twice and splashes down off the coast of Puerto Rico.

1963–President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

1963–Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashes shortly after takeoff from Montreal-Dorval International Airport, killing all 118 people on board.

1963–The Beatles single, I Want to Hold Your Hand/This Boy, is released in the U.K.

1965–The Canadian Space Agency launches the satellite Alouette 2.

1967–During the Vietnam War, U.S. Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, announces his resignation.

1969–Billboard magazine stops giving separate listings to both sides of singles on its singles chart.

1972–Atari announces the release of Pong, the first commercially successful video game.

1974–Boxer, James J. Braddock, dies in North Bergen, New Jersey, at age 69. He was the World Heavyweight Champion from 1935 to 1937. In 1935, he fought Max Baer for the heavyweight title and won. He was given the nickname "Cinderella Man" by Damon Runyon. The biographical film, Cinderella Man, tells Braddock's story. It was directed by Ron Howard, and starred Russell Crowe as Braddock.

1981–Actress, Natalie Wood, dies from accidental drowning in Santa Catalina Island, California, at age 43. She appeared in the films Tomorrow Is Forever, Miracle on 34th Street, The Star, Rebel Without a Cause, The Girl He Left Behind, The Searchers, Majorie Morningstar, All the Fine Young Cannibals, Cash McCall, West Side Story, Splendor in the Grass, Gypsy, Love with the Proper Sranger, Sex and the Single Girl, Inside Daisy Clover, The Great Race, This Property Is Condemned, Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, The Last Married Couple in America, and Brainstorm.

1986–The Surinamese military attacks the village of Moiwana during the Suriname Guerrilla War, killing at least 39 civilians, mostly women and children.

1986–Actor, Cary Grant, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Davenport, Iowa, at age 82. Known for his transatlantic accent, debonair demeanor, and dashing good looks, Grant is considered one of classic Hollywood's definitive leading men. He appeared in the films She Done Him Wrong, I’m No Angel, Topper, Bringing Up Baby, Gunga Din, His Girl Friday, My Favorite Wife, The Philadelphia Story, Suspicion, Mr. Lucky, Arsenic and Old Lace, Notorious, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer, The Bishop’s Wife, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, I Was a Male War Bride, To Catch a Thief, An Affair to Remember, Houseboat, North by Northwest, Operation Petticoat, That Touch of Mink, Charade, Father Goose, and Walk, Don’t Run.

1987–Korean Air Flight 858 explodes over the Thai-Burmese border, killing 115 people.

1990–The United Nations Security Council passes two resolutions to restore international peace and security if Iraq does not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

1991–Actor, Ralph Bellamy, dies of a lung ailment in Santa Monica, California, at age 87. He appeared in the films Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Spitfire, His Girl Friday, Five Bomber, The Wolf Man, The Ghost of Frankenstein, Stage Door Canteen, Sunrise at Campobello, Rosemary’s Baby, Doctor’s Wives, Trading Places, Terror in the Aisles, Amazon Women on the Moon, Coming to America, The Good Mother, and Pretty Woman.

1999–Television game show host, Gene Rayburn, dies of congestive heart failure in Gloucester, Massachusetts, at age 81. He is best known as the host of various editions of the popular show The Match Game for over two decades.

2001–Musician, George Harrison, dies of brain cancer at the home of a close friend in Los Angeles, California, at age 58. His wife Olivia, and his son Dhani, were by his side. George had been carrying on an ongoing battle with cancer for several years. He was a member of The Beatles, a solo artist, film producer, and spiritual seeker. George’s songs include Don’t Bother Me, I Want to Tell You, Within You Without You, While My Guitar Gently Weeps, Something, and Here Comes the Sun. He introduced the sitar to Beatles music, signaling his introduction to what would become his lifelong pursuit of Eastern philosophy and the Hara Krishna religion. His last words were “Love one another.”

2004–Actor, John Drew Barrymore, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 72. In his later years, he became more and more reclusive. Suffering from the same problems with addiction that had destroyed his father, John Barrymore, he became a derelict. Estranged from his family, including his children, his lifestyle continued to worsen and his physical and mental health deteriorated. In 2003, his daughter, Drew Barrymore, moved him near her home despite their estrangement, paying his medical bills until his death. He appeared in the films The Sundowners, High Lonesome, While the City Sleeps, High School Confidential, The Centurion, and Baby Blue Marine.

2005–Actress, Wendie Jo Sperber, dies of breast cancer in Sherman Oaks, California, at age 47. She is best known for her role on the TV series Busom Buddies. She appeared in the films Corvette Summer, I Wanna Hold Your Hand, 1941, Used Cars, Bachelor Party, and Back to the Future.

2007–The Armed Forces of the Philippines lay siege to the Peninsula Manila, after soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes stage a mutiny.

2007–A 7.4 earthquake occurs off the northern coast of Martinique: it affects the Eastern Caribbean as far north as Puerto Rico and as far south as Trinidad.

2008–Danish architect, Jørn Oberg Utzon, dies in his sleep of a heart attack in Copenhagen, Denmark, at age 90. Utzon left a rich legacy as the only Danish architect to make a significant contribution to Modernism. He is best known as the designer of the Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia.

2009–Maurice Clemmons shoots and kills four police officers inside a coffee shop in Lakewood, Washington.

2012–The United Nations General Assembly votes to accord non-member observer state to Palestine.

2013–LAM Mozambique Airlines Flight 470 crashes in Namibia, killing 33 people.

2015–A fire in the South African city of Cape Town leaves two people dead and thousands homeless.

2015–Pope Francis arrives in the Central African Republic, the last stop of his six-day African tour. He is the first modern pope to enter an active war zone: the country is in a state of civil war.

2016–Susan Kiefel is appointed the next Chief Justice of Australia by Australian Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull.

2016–Gatlinburg, Tennessee, is evacuated as wildfires approach the city.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Charles IV, King of Bohemia; Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe; Thomas Edison with his phonograph; Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.; Dagmar; Garry Shandling; Paul McCartney and Pete Best; video game, Pong; Cary Grant; George Harrison; and Wendy Jo Sperber.

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