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1929–Electrical and sound engineer, Amar (Gopal) Bose, is born in Bengal, India. He founded the Bose Corporation. His research on acoustics led him to invent a stereo loudspeaker that would reproduce, in a domestic setting, the dominantly reflected sound field that characterizes the listening space of the audience in a concert hall. His focus on psychoacoustics later became a hallmark of his company's audio products. He was also a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for over 45 years.

619–A qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is assassinated in a Chinese palace by Eastern Turkic rivals, after the approval of Tang Emperor Gaozu.

682–Arabian caliph, Umar II, is born Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz in Medina (present-day Saudi Arabia).

971–Mahmud of Ghazni is born Yamin al-Dawla wa Amin al-Milla in Ghazna (present-day Afghanistan). He was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He conquered the eastern Iranian lands and the northwestern Indian subcontinent (present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan). He was the first ruler to carry the title of Sultan.

1285–Peter III of Aragon dies of unknown causes in Vilafranca del Penedès, Spain, at age 45. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs.

1299–Alfonso IV of Aragon is born in Naples, Italy.

1410–The Peace of Bicêtre suspends hostilities in the Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War.

1470–Edward V of England is born in Westminster, England. He was never crowned, and his 86-day reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle and Lord Protector, Richard, Duke of Gloucester.

1475–Anne of York, Lady Howard, is born at Westminster Palace in London, England. She was the fifth daughter of King Edward IV of England and his wife, Elizabeth Woodville.

1618–Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, dies in Vienna, Austria, at age 60. He was also known as Maximilian the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.

1675–Plymouth Colony Governor, Josiah Winslow, leads a colonial militia against the Narragansett during King Philip's War.

1734–Hunter and explorer, Daniel Boone, is born in Oley Valley, Berks County, Pennsylvania Colony. He was a pioneer, a woodsman, and a frontiersman, whose exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of America. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the state of Kentucky.

1755–Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI of France, is born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna at Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure and a major cultural icon associated with high glamour, wealth, and a certain style of life based on luxury and celebrity, appealing today to the social and cultural elites. She is frequently referenced in popular culture and has been the subject of several books, films, and other forms of media. Most academics and scholars, have deemed her the quintessential representative of class conflict, Western aristocracy, and absolutism government, in addition to being frivolous and superficial. She has also been blamed for the start of the French Revolution, in addition to the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars of 1792.

1795–The French Directory, a five-man revolutionary government, is created.

1795–Politician, James (Knox) Polk, is born in Pineville, North Carolina. He was the 11th President of the United States. Polk also served as the 17th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1835-1839) and Governor of Tennessee (1839-1841). Polk is often considered the last strong pre-Civil War President, and he is the earliest of whom surviving photographs were taken during a term in office.

1807–Politician, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, dies in Paris, France, at age 77. He was a French aristocrat, diplomat, and statesman. He was Prime Minister of France. He was the last Prime Minister of the Bourbon Monarchy, appointed by King Louis XVI, only 100 hours before the storming of the Bastille.

1844–Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed V, is born in Topkapi Palace, Constantinople (present-day Istanbul).

1865–Politician and journalist, Warren G. Harding, is born Warren Gamaliel Harding in Blooming Grove, Ohio. He was the 29th President of the United States.

1868–New Zealand officially adopts a standard time to be observed nationally.

1882–Oulu, Finland, is devastated by the Great Oulu Fire of 1882.

1887–Singer, Jenny Lind, dies in Wynd's Point, Herefordshire, England, at age 67. One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of America beginning in 1850.

1889–North Dakota and South Dakota become the 39th and 40th states of the United States of America.

1890–The formal and official founding of the Uddevalla Suffrage Association takes place.

1895–The first gasoline-powered race in the United States is run and the first prize is $2,000.

1898–Cheerleading is started at the University of Minnesota, with Johnny Campbell leading the crowd in cheering on the football team.

1899–The Boers begin their 118-day siege of British-held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

1904–The British newspaper, The Daily Mirror, begins publication.

1909–Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity is founded at Boston University.

1912–Bulgaria defeats the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Lule Burgas, the bloodiest battle of the First Balkan War, which opens the way to Constantinople.

1913–Actor, Burt Lancaster, is born Burton Stephen Lancaster in Manhattan, New York. He is regarded as one of the best motion picture actors in history. He appeared in the films Sorry, Wrong Number, Jim Thorpe: All American, Come Back, Little Sheba, From Here to Eternity, The Rose Tattoo, Trapeze, The Rainmaker, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Sweet Smell of Success, Elmer Gantry, Birdman of Alcatraz, Seven Days in May, The Swimmer, Atlantic City, Local Hero, Rocket Gibraltar, and Field of Dreams.

1914–The Russian Empire declares war on the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles are subsequently closed.

1914–Actor, Ray Walston, is born Herman Raymond Walston in Laurel, Mississippi. He is best known for the title role on the TV series My Favorite Martian. He appeared in the films South Pacific, Damn Yankees!, Tall Story, The Apartment, Who’s Minding the Store?, Kiss Me, Stupid, Paint Your Wagon, Touch of Evil, The Sting, Silver Streak, Popeye, Fast Times at Ridgemont High, and Johnny Dangerously.

1915–Film producer, (Michael) Sidney Luft, is born in New York, New York. Luft's first Hollywood assignment was as the secretary and manager of dancer, Eleanor Powell. His biggest success was as producer of the remake of A Star Is Born, starring his wife, Judy Garland. Their daughter is actress, Lorna Luft.

1917–The Balfour Declaration proclaims British support for the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" with the clear understanding "that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities."

1917–The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, in charge of preparation and carrying out the Russian Revolution, holds its first meeting.

1920–KDKA in Pittsburgh becomes the first radio station to have a regularly scheduled broadcast.

1920–Adam Martin Wyant becomes the first former professional American football player to be elected to the U.S. Congress.

1924–Recording engineer, Rudy Van Gelder, is born in Jersey City, New Jersey. Regarded as possibly the most important recording engineer of jazz, he recorded several thousand jazz sessions, including many recognized as classics, in a career which spanned more than 50 years. Van Gelder worked with many of the great names in the genre, including John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, Joe Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Wayne Shorter, and Horace Silver. He was most closely associated with Blue Note Records.

1927–Writer, T.S. Eliot, born in St. Louis, Missouri, and educated at Harvard, becomes a British subject.

1929–Electrical and sound engineer, Amar (Gopal) Bose, is born in Bengal, India. He founded the Bose Corporation. His research on acoustics led him to invent a stereo loudspeaker that would reproduce, in a domestic setting, the dominantly reflected sound field that characterizes the listening space of the audience in a concert hall. His focus on psychoacoustics later became a hallmark of his company's audio products. He was also a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for over 45 years.

1930–Haile Selassie is crowned Emperor of Ethiopia.

1931–Jazz saxophonist and bandleader, Phil Woods, is born Philip Wells Woods in Springfield, Massachusetts. His best known recorded work as a sideman is his alto sax solo on Billy Joel's Just the Way You Are. He also played the alto sax solo on Steely Dan's Doctor Wu from their album Katy Lied, as well as work on Paul Simon's album Still Crazy After All These Years.

1936–Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaims the Rome-Berlin Axis, establishing the alliance of the Axis powers.

1936–The British Broadcasting Corporation initiates the BBC Television Service, the world's first regular, "high-definition" (then defined as at least 200 lines) service. Renamed BBC1 in 1964, the channel still runs to this day.

1936–The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is established.

1937–Earl Carroll, of The Cadillacs and The Coasters, is born in New York, New York.

1938–Jay Black, of Jay and the Americans, is born David Blatt in New York, New York. Jay Black was the second, and more widely known, Jay to lead the band; the first being Jay Traynor. The group had hits with Cara Mia, Come a Little Bit Closer, and This Magic Moment.

1938–Politician and journalist, Pat Buchanan, is born Patrick Joseph Buchanan in Washington, D.C. He is a paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. Buchanan was a senior advisor to Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan. He was an original host on CNN's Crossfire.

1938–Queen Sofía of Spain is born Sophia Margarita Victoria Frederika in Psychiko, Athens, Greece. She is the wife of King Juan Carlos I. Her brother is the deposed King Constantine II and her sister is Princess Irene.

1941–Bruce Welch, of the instrumental group, The Shadows, is born Bruce Cripps in Bognor Regis, England. As well as success with The Shadows, Welch also acted as producer for Cliff Richard and songwriter for his ex-fiancée, Olivia Newton-John.

1942–Sexologist, educator, and author, Shere Hite, is born Shirley Diana Gregory in Saint Joseph, Missouri. Hite’s work has focused on understanding how individuals regard sexual experience and the meaning it holds for them. Her books include The Hite Report on Female Sexuality and The Hite Report on Men and Male Sexuality.

1942–Actress, Stefanie Powers, is born Stefanie Zofya Paul in Hollywood, California. She is best known for the role of Jennifer Hart in the TV series Hart to Hart. She appeared in the films Tammy Tell Me True, If a Man Answers, The Interns, Palm Springs Weekend, McLintock!, and Warning Shot. She was married to actor, Gary Lockwood.

1944–Keith (Noel) Emerson, of Emerson, Lake & Palmer, is born in Todmorden, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Emerson is widely regarded as one of the top keyboard players of the progressive rock era. The group’s biggest hit was Lucky Man.

1945–Musician, J.D. Souther, is born John David Souther in Detroit, Michigan. Souther is probably best known for his songwriting abilities, especially in the field of country rock. He co-wrote some of the biggest hits for The Eagles, including Best of My Love, Victim of Love, Heartache Tonight, and New Kid in Town.

1947–In California, designer Howard Hughes performs the maiden (and only) flight of the Spruce Goose (or H-4 The Hercules), the largest fixed-wing aircraft ever built.

1947–Dave Pegg, of both Fairport Convention and Jethro Tull, is born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, England. He has appeared on some of the most significant albums of his era, as well as undertaking solo projects. His style of playing bass has been particularly influential in electric folk music.

1949–The Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference ends with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.

1950–Irish-born playwright and critic, George Bernard Shaw, dies of renal failure precipitated by injuries incurred by falling while pruning a tree in Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire, England, at age 94. All told, Shaw wrote over 60 plays, including Major Barbara, Pygmalion, and Saint Joan.

1951–A platoon of the Royal Canadian Regiment defends a vital area against a full battalion of Chinese troops in the Battle of the Song-gok Spur, during the Korean War.

1953–The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan names the country The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

1957–The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity.

1957–Carter (Anthony) Beauford, drummer for Dave Matthews Band, is born in Charlottesville, Virginia.

1958–Billboard magazine introduces a new chart that ranks the “Top 100” singles.

1959–Charles Van Doren, contestant on the game show, Twenty One, admits to a U.S. Congressional committee that he had been given questions and answers in advance.

1959–The first section of the M1 motorway, the first inter-urban motorway in the United Kingdom, is opened between the present junctions 5 and 18, along with the M10 motorway and M45 motorway.

1960–A British jury decides that D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover is not obscene, nor is it likely to deprave or corrupt those who read it.

1961–Singer, k.d. lang, is born Kathryn Dawn Lang in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Lang possesses the vocal range of a mezzo-soprano. Her biggest hit was 1992’s Constant Craving. She has contributed songs to movie soundtracks and has teamed with musicians such as Roy Orbison, Tony Bennett, Elton John, Anne Murray, Ann Wilson, and Jane Siberry.

1961–Humorist, James Thurber, dies from complications of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 66. According to his wife, is last words, aside from the repeated word "God," were "God bless... God damn." Thurber was best known for his cartoons and short stories, published mainly in The New Yorker magazine and collected in his numerous books.

1962–The Elvis Presley movie Girls! Girls! Girls! premieres.

1963–South Vietnamese President, Ngo Dinh Diem, is assassinated following a military coup.

1963–American singer, Dion, storms out of a taping of the English TV show Ready Steady Go! He complains that the go-go dancers are distracting him from his performance.

1963–Bobby Dall, bass player for Poison, is born Robert Harry Kuykendall in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. The band has charted 10 singles in the “Top 40” of the Billboard "Hot 100," including six “Top 10” singles. The band’s best known hit is Every Rose Has Its Thorn.

1963–Ron McGovney, bass player for Metallica, is born in Los Angeles, California.

1963–Politician, Ngo Dinh Diem, dies from assassination by bayonet and revolver in Saigon, South Vietnam, at age 62. He was the first President of the Republic of Vietnam.

1964–King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed by a family coup, and replaced by his half-brother, Faisal.

1965–Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam War.

1966–The Cuban Adjustment Act comes into force, allowing 123,000 Cubans the opportunity to apply for permanent residence in the United States.

1966–Actor, David (Lawrence) Schwimmer, is born in Flushing, Queens, New York. He is best known for the role of Ross Geller on the TV series Friends. He has been cast in other TV shows, including The Wonder Years, L.A. Law, NYPD Blue, ER, and 30 Rock. He appeared in the films Flight of the Intruder, Twenty Bucks, Wolf, and Six Days Seven Nights.

1966–Mississippi John Hurt dies of a heart attack in Grenada, Mississippi, at age 73. Material recorded by him has been re-released by many record labels over the years, and his songs have been recorded by Bob Dylan, Jerry Garcia, Beck, Doc Watson, Taj Mahal, and David Johansen.

1967–President Lyndon B. Johnson and "The Wise Men" conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the Vietnam War.

1967–Politician, Scott (Kevin) Walker, is born in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin. He was a candidate for the Republican nomination for the 2016 Presidential election.

1973–The Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India form a “United Front” in the state of Tripura.

1973–The John Lennon LP, Mind Games, is released in the U.S.

1974–Seventy-eight people die when the Time Go-Go Club in Seoul, South Korea, burns down. Six of the victims jump to their deaths from the seventh floor, after a club official bars the doors once the fire started.

1974–George Harrison begins a tour of North America with a performance in Vancouver, Washington. Supporting musicians for the tour are Billy Preston, Ravi Shankar, Tom Scott, Chuck Findley, Jim Horn, Robben Ford, Andy Newmark, Willie Weeks, and Emil Richards. George is suffering from laryngitis, and so the tour will generally be regarded as somewhat of a failure. This is, however, the first-ever solo tour by a Beatle and the first time Harrison himself has hit the road since 1966.

1977–South Ockendon Windmill, a smock mill at South Ockendon, Essex, England, collapses.

1976–Jimmy Carter is elected the 39th President of the United States, defeating Republican Gerald Ford.

1979–Mick and Bianca Jagger are divorced.

1982–Channel 4 is launched in the United Kingdom.

1983–President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.

1984–Velma Barfield becomes the first woman executed in the United States since 1962.

1987–The George Harrison LP, Cloud Nine, is released in the U.S. and the U.K.

1988–The Morris worm, the first Internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, is launched from MIT.

1990–British Satellite Broadcasting and Sky Television plc merge to form BSkyB, as a result of massive financial losses.

1991–Film Producer, Irwin Allen, dies of a heart attack in Santa Monica, California, at age 75. He was a television, documentary, and film director and producer who became known as the “Master of Disaster.” His work includes the TV series Land of the Giants and the first disaster movie The Poseidon Adventure, followed by The Towering Inferno.

1992–Film producer and director, Hal Roach, dies of pneumonia in Los Angeles, California, at age 100. He is best known for producing the Laurel and Hardy and Our Gang (later known as The Little Rascals) film comedy series: Roach outlived many of the Our Gang children who starred in his pictures. In 1955, Roach sold his interests in the production company to his son, Hal Roach, Jr., and retired from active production. The 14.5 acre Hal Roach Studios (once known as "The Lot of Fun") containing 55 buildings, was torn down in 1963.

1993–Rudy Guliani is elected the 107th Mayor of New York City.

2000–The first crew arrives at the International Space Station.

2000–Super-centenarian, Eva Morris, dies in her sleep in Stone, Staffordshire, England, at age 114 (and 360 days). Morris attributed her longevity to whisky and boiled onions.

2001–The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO) is adopted.

2004–George W. Bush defeats John Kerry for his second term as President of the United States.

2008–Madelyn Dunham, grandmother of Barack Obama, dies of cancer in Honolulu, Hawaii, at age 86. Two days later, her grandson would become President of the United States.

2014–Jazz clarinetist, Acker Bilk, dies of throat and bladder cancer in Bath, Somerset, England, at age 85. His biggest international hit was Stranger on the Shore in 1962.

2014–Businessman and philanthropist, Herman Sarkowsky, dies in Seattle, Washington, at age 89. He was a co-founder of two Pacific Northwest sports franchises, the Portland Trail Blazers and the Seattle Seahawks.

2015–Country singer, Tommy Overstreet, dies in Hillsboro, Oregon, at age 78. Often known simply as "T.O." by fans and radio disc jockeys, Overstreet had five “Top 5” hit singles on the Billboard country charts, and 11 “Top 10” singles.

2016–Park Geun-hye seeks to appoint Kim Byong-joon as the new Prime Minister of South Korea, in a bid to restore confidence after a political scandal. Kim Byong-joon would replace sacked Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn.

2016–Qui Nguyen wins the 2016 World Series of Poker Main Event in Las Vegas, Nevada.

2016–In American Major League Baseball, the Chicago Cubs defeat the Cleveland Indians 8-7 in 10 innings, winning the World Series 4-3 and claiming their first MLB title since 1908.

2016–Two police officers are shot and killed by Scott Michael Greene in separate "ambush-style" attacks in Urbandale and Des Moines, Iowa. He is captured by police two hours later.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Peter III of Aragon; Daniel Boone; Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil; Jenny Lind; Burt Lancaster; Adam Martin Wyant; Benito Mussolini; Queen Sophia of Spain; J.D. Souther; George Bernard Shaw; the M1 motorway in 1959; Dion; David Schwimmer; George Harrison on his 1974 tour; The Poseidon Adventure poster; and Acker Bilk.

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