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1966–The Arno River floods Florence, Italy, to a maximum depth of 22 feet, leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of art masterpieces and rare books.

1411–Khalil Sultan of Timurid dies in Rey, Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, at age 27.

1429–Joan of Arc liberates Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier, France.

1448–Alfonso II of Naples is born in Naples, Italy.

1501–Catherine of Aragon meets Arthur Tudor, Henry VIII's older brother: they would later marry.

1576–In Flanders, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city is nearly destroyed).

1631–Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, is born Mary Henrietta at St. James's Palace, London, England. Her only child later reigned as King William III of England and Ireland.

1650–William III of England is born in Binnenhof, The Hague. He was Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672; and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He was informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy."

1677–The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange. They would later jointly reign as William and Mary.

1737–The Teatro di San Carlo is inaugurated in Naples, Italy.

1780–The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II begins against Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty of Peru.

1783–Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Symphony No. 36 is performed for the first time in Linz, Austria.

1791–The Western Confederacy of American Indians wins a major victory over the United States in the Battle of the Wabash.

1839–Newport Rising begins. It is the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.

1841–The first wagon train arrives in California from the Eastern U.S.

1847–British physician, Sir James Young Simpson, discovers the anaesthetic properties of chloroform.

1847–Pianist and composer, Felix Mendelssohn, dies after a series of strokes in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, at age 38. He wrote symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano music, and chamber music. He is among the most popular composers of the Romantic era.

1852–Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, becomes the Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which soon expands to become Italy.

1861–The University of Washington opens as the Territorial University in Seattle, Washington.

1868–Camagüey, Cuba, revolts against Spain during the Ten Years' War.

1879–Humorist, lecturer, and writer, Will Rogers, is born William Penn Adair Rogers in Oologah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Rogers, one of the giants of vaudeville, was often referred to as an American folk hero, even during his lifetime, and earned the nickname of the "cowboy philosopher." The reason Rogers was so popular was because he used things he had learned as a child on a farm in his acts. For example, he twirled a lasso using skills he had learned while roping steer. In 1926, Rogers decided to expand his career and started writing syndicated articles for The New York Times. He commented on daily news bits and philosophy, but focused mainly on a humorous political commentary, which he had introduced in his show. He was also an author of several works including The Cowboy Philosopher on Prohibition and Will Rogers' Political Follies. His most famous saying was “ I never met a man I didn’t like.” He appeared in the films A Connecticut Yankee, Business and Pleasure, State Fair, Doctor Bull, Handy Andy, Life Begins At Forty, Doubting Thomas, Steamboat Round the Bend, and In Old Kentucky.

1884–Engineer, Harry Ferguson, is born Henry George Ferguson in Growell, County Down, Ireland. He developed the modern agricultural tractor, was the first Irishman to build and fly his own aeroplane, and developed the first four-wheel drive Formula One car, the Ferguson P99.

1890–The first deep-level tube railway opens between King William Street and Stockwell in London, England.

1901–Bangja, Crown Princess Euimin of Korea, is born Princess Masako Nashimoto in Japan. She was married to Crown Prince Euimin of Korea.

1902–Super-centenarian, Reg Dean, is born Thomas Reginald Dean in Tunstall, Staffordshire, England. He will live to the age of 110.

1912–During the First Balkan War, the First Battle of Catalca begins as an attempt by Bulgaria to break through the last defensive line before the Turkish capital, Constantinople.

1913–Actor, Gig Young, is born Byron Elsworth Barr in St. Cloud, Minnesota. He appeared in the films Sergeant York, They Died with Their Boots On, Old Acquaintance, Come Fill the Cup, Torch Song, Young at Heart, The Desperate Hours, Desk Set, Teacher’s Pet, The Tunnel of Love, Ask Any Girl, That Touch of Mink, Kid Galahad, Strange Bedfellows, The Shuttered Room, They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?, and Lovers and Other Strangers. He was married to actress, Elizabeth Montgomery.

1916–Journalist and news anchor, Walter Cronkite, is born in Saint Joseph, Missouri. He is best known as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962-1981). During the heyday of CBS News in the 1960s and 1970s, he was often cited as "the most trusted man in America," after being so named in an opinion poll. From 1953 to 1957, Cronkite hosted the CBS program You Are There, which re-enacted historical events, using the format of a news report. Cronkite is vividly remembered for breaking the news of the death of President John F. Kennedy on Friday, November 22, 1963: he was the first newsman do so.

1916–Businesswoman, Ruth Handler, is born Ruth Marianna Mosko in Denver, Colorado. She served as the president of the toy manufacturer Mattel Inc., and is best known for inventing the Barbie doll. Handler said her daughter, Barbara, who was becoming a pre-teen, played with paper dolls by pretending they were adults. She wanted to produce a three-dimensional plastic "paper doll" with an adult body and a wardrobe of fabric clothing, others at Mattel thought parents would not buy their children a doll with a voluptuous figure. While the Handler family was vacationing in Europe, Ruth saw the German “Bild Lilli” doll (which was not a children's toy, but an adult gag gift) in a Swiss shop and brought one home. The Lilli doll was a representation of the same concept Ruth had been trying to sell to other Mattel executives. She reworked the design and named her Barbie. Barbie, the ponytailed fashion doll debuted at the New York toy fair on March 9, 1959.

1918–During World War I, the Armistice of Villa Giusti, between Italy and Austria-Hungary, is implemented.

1918–Actor, Art Carney, is born Arthur William Matthew Carney in Mount Vernon, New York. He is best known for the role of Ed Norton on The Jackie Gleason Show and The Honeymooners. He appeared in the films The Yellow Rolls-Royce, A Guide for the Married Man, Harry and Tonto, The Late Show, Movie Movie, House Calls, Going in Style, Take This Job and Shove It, Firestarter, and Izzy and Moe.

1918–Actor, Cameron Mitchell, is born Cameron McDowell Mitzell in Dallastown, Pennsylvania. He appeared in the films They Were Expendable, Death of a Salesman, Flight to Mars, How to Marry a Millionaire, the Tall Men, Love Me or Leave Me, Carousel, No Down Payment, Ride in the Whirlwind, Hombre, The Rebel Rousers, The Swarm, and My Favorite Year.

1919–Actor, Martin (Henry) Balsam, is born in the Bronx, New York. He appeared in the films On the Waterfront, 12 Angry Men, Marjorie Morningstar, Middle of the Night, Five Fingers, Psycho, Ada, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Cape Fear, Seven Days in May, The Carpetbaggers, Youngblood Hawke, A Thousand Clowns, Catch-22, and All the President’s Men. He was married to actress, Joyce Van Patton.

1921–The Sturmabteilung, or SA, whose members were known as "brownshirts," physically assault Adolf Hitler's opposition after his speech in Munich, Germany.

1921–Japanese Prime Minister, Hara Takashi, is assassinated in Tokyo, Japan.

1922–Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Tutankhamen in Egypt. King Tut came into power at the age of nine. He was Pharaoh of ancient Egypt until his death at the age of 18 or 19 (in BC 1352).

1923–Businessman, Freddy Heineken, is born Alfred Henry Heineken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He served as Chairman of the Board of directors and CEO of Heineken International from 1971 until 1989.

1924–Nellie Tayloe Ross, of Wyoming, is elected the first female Governor in the United States.

1925–Character actress, Doris Roberts, is born Doris May Green in St. Louis, Missouri. She is best known for the role of Marie Barone on the sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond. She was cast in dozens of TV shows, including Naked City, Ben Casey, All in the Family, Rhoda, and Alice. She appeared in the films Something Wild, Barefoot in the Park, No Way to Treat a Lady, Such Good Friends, Hester Street, The Rose, Used People, and Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star.

1929–Mathematician and astrologer, Shakuntala Devi, is born in Bengaluru, India. She popularly known as the "human computer." A child prodigy, her talent earned her a place in the 1982 edition of The Guinness Book of World Records. On June 18, 1980, she demonstrated the multiplication of two 13-digit numbers: 7,686,369,774,870 x 2,465,099,745,779, picked at random by the Computer Department of Imperial College London. She correctly answered 18,947,668,177,995,426,462,773,730 in 28 seconds. Her books include Astrology for You, Book of Numbers, and Puzzles to Puzzle You.

1937–Actress, Loretta (Jane) Swit, is born in Passaic, New Jersey. She is best known for her co-starring role on the TV series M*A*S*H. She appeared in the films Freebie and the Bean, Race with the Devil, S.O.B., and A Killer Among Friends.

1939–President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the U.S. Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons by belligerents.

1940–Blues singer, Delbert McClinton, is born in Lubbock, Texas. He recorded several regional singles before hitting the national charts in 1962, playing harmonica on Bruce Channel's Hey! Baby. On a subsequent package tour to the United Kingdom, McClinton instructed John Lennon on the finer points of blues harmonica playing.

1946–Laura Bush, wife of President George W. Bush, is born Laura Lane Welch in Midland, Texas. She was the 45th First Lady of the United States.

1946–Photographer, Robert Mapplethorpe, is born in Floral Park, Queens, New York. He is known for his sometimes controversial large-scale, highly stylized black and white photography. His work featured an array of subjects, including celebrity portraits, male and female nudes, self-portraits, and still-life images of flowers.

1948–T.S. Eliot is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

1950–Actress, Markie Post, is born Marjorie Armstrong Post in Palo Alto, California. She is best known for the role of Christine Sullivan on the sitcom Night Court. She also appeared on the TV shows Hart to Hart, Eight Is Enough, Cheers, The Fall Guy, Scrubs, and 30 Rock.

1952–Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected the 34th President of the United States.

1952–The U.S. government establishes the National Security Agency (NSA).

1954–Chris Difford, of Squeeze, is born Christopher Henry Difford in Greenwich, London, England.

1955–Baseball player and manager, Cy Young, dies in Newcomerstown, Ohio, at age 88. During his 21-year baseball career (1890-1911), he pitched for five different teams. Young established numerous pitching records, some of which have stood for a century. He compiled 511 wins, which is the most in Major League history. Young was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937.

1956–Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution against the Soviet Union that started on October 23rd. Thousands of people are killed, many more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.

1956–James Honeyman-Scott, of The Pretenders, is born in Hereford, Herefordshire, England.

1960–At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Dr. Jane Goodall observes chimpanzees creating tools, the first-ever observation in non-human animals.

1960–Comedienne, Kathy Griffin, is born Kathleen Mary Griffin in Oak Park, Illinois. In the 1990s, Griffin began performing as a standup comedian and also appeared as a guest star on several TV shows. Her breakthrough came on the Bravo reality show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List (2005-2010). Griffin is known for her conversational style and statements on celebrities, religion, and sexuality.

1961–Actor, Ralph Macchio, is born Ralph George Macchio, Jr. in Huntington, New York. He is best known for the role of Daniel LaRusso in the Karate Kid film series. He appeared in the films Up the Academy, The Outsiders, Teachers, Crossroads, My Cousin Vinny, Naked in New York, and Hitchcock.

1962–In a test of the Nike Hercules air defense missile, Shot Dominic-Tightrope is successfully detonated 69,000 feet above Johnston Atoll. It would also be the last atmospheric nuclear test conducted by the United States, in anticipation of the 1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

1964–Democrat Lyndon Johnson is elected President of the United States by a huge margin over Republican Barry Goldwater.

1965–The Doors perform on the Pioneer Boat Club Ride. This is one of their earliest bookings outside their circle of friends.

1966–The Arno River floods Florence, Italy, to a maximum depth of 22 feet, leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of art masterpieces and rare books.

1969–Rapper, Sean (John) Combs, is born in Harlem, New York. He is known by his stage names Puff Daddy, Puffy, Diddy, and P. Diddy. Combs worked as a talent director at Uptown Records before founding Bad Boy Records in 1993. He appeared in the films Made, Monster’s Ball, Seamless, A Raisin in the Sun, and Draft Day.

1969–Actor, Matthew (David) McConaughey, is born in Uvalde, Texas. He appeared in the films Dazed and Confused, Angels in the Outfield, Boys on the Side, Lone Star, A Time to Kill, Contact, EDtv, The Wedding Planner, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days, Two for the Money, Failure to Launch, We Are Marshall, and Dallas Buyers Club. His father was football player, Jim McConaughey.

1970–The United States turns control of the Binh Thuy Air Base in the Mekong Delta over to South Vietnam.

1970–Salvador Allende takes office as President of Chile, the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

1970–Genie, a 13-year-old feral child, is found in Los Angeles, California, having been locked in her bedroom for most of her life.

1970–Salvador Allende takes office as President of Chile, the first Marxist to become President of a Latin American country through open elections.

1970–TV personality and entrepreneur, Bethenny Frankel, is born in New York, New York. She has appeared on the reality shows The Apprentice: Martha Stewart, The Real Housewives of New York City, and Bethenny Ever After.

1973–The Netherlands experiences the first “Car-Free Sunday” caused by the 1973 oil crisis. Highways are deserted and are used only by cyclists and roller skaters.

1975–Celebrity chef, Curtis Stone, is born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. He has appeared on the TV shows Iron Chef America, America's Next Great Restaurant, Top Chef Masters, Around the World in 80 Plates, and Celebrity Apprentice.

1977–The film, The Last Waltz, starring the rock group, The Band, and host of special guests, premieres in New York City.

1979–Iran hostage crisis begins when a mob of Iranians, mostly students, overruns the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking 90 hostages (53 of them are American).

1980–Former Hollywood actor, Ronald Reagan, is elected the 40th President of the United States.

1981–Dr. George Nichopoulas is acquitted of over-prescribing addictive drugs for Elvis Presley.

1982–Actress, Dominique Dunne, dies of strangulation in Los Angeles, California, at age 22. The attacker was her boyfriend, John Sweeney.

1992–Engineer, George Klein, dies in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, at age 88. He invented the motorized wheelchair. Klein worked for 40 years as a mechanical engineer at the National Research Council of Canada Laboratories in Ottawa, Canada.

1993–China Airlines Flight 605, a Boeing 747, overruns Runway 13 at Hong Kong's Kai Tak International Airport, while landing during a typhoon, injuring 22 people.

1995–Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, is assassinated by an extremist Israeli.

2001–The 53rd Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: The West Wing; Best Comedy Series: Sex and the City; Best Musical or Variety Series: Late Show with David Letterman; Best Mini-Series: Anne Frank, The Whole Story; Best Made for Television Movie: Wit; Best Actor: James Gandolfini; Best Actress: Edie Falco; Best Comedy Actor: Eric McCormack; Best Comedy Actress: Patricia Heaton. The ceremonies are held at the Shubert Theater, Los Angeles, California. The host is Ellen DeGeneres. This year the ceremony was re-scheduled twice from its original date of September 16th: first, because of the September 11, 2001, attacks that occurred five days prior to the event; second, it was removed from its rescheduled date of October 7th as a result of the start of the War in Afghanistan.

2002–Chinese authorities arrest cyber-dissident, He Depu, for signing a pro-democracy letter to the 16th Communist Party Congress.

2005–Actress, Sheree North, dies during cancer surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, at age 73. She was seen in dozens of TV shows from the 1950s through the 1980s. She appeared in the films Living It Up, How to Be Very, Very Popular, The Best Things in Life Are Free, No Down Payment, In Love and War, Mardi Gras, The Gypsy Moths, The Trouble with Girls, Charley Varrick, and The Shootist.

2008–Barack Obama becomes the first person of African-American descent to be elected President of the United States.

2008–Author, physician, and screenwriter, Michael Crichton, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 66. Crichton had been diagnosed with lymphoma in early 2008, which was kept private until after his death. He was undergoing chemotherapy, and Crichton's physicians and relatives were optimistic that he would recover. He is best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. His works include The Andromeda Strain, The Terminal Man, Jurassic Park, The Lost World, and Next.

2010–Qantas Flight 32, an Airbus A380, suffers an uncontained engine failure over Indonesia shortly after taking off from Singapore, crippling the jet. The crew manages to safely return to Singapore, saving all 469 passengers and crew.

2010–Aero Caribbean Flight 883 crashes into Guasimal, Sancti Spíritus. All 68 passengers and crew members are killed.

2010–Super-centenarian, Eugénie Blanchard, dies in Saint Barthélemy, France, at age 114 (and 261 days).

2011–Journalist and author, Andy Rooney, dies of post-operative complications from an undisclosed surgery in New York, New York, at age 92. He is best known for his weekly broadcast "A Few Minutes with Andy Rooney," a part of the CBS News program 60 Minutes from 1978 to 2011.

2014–Actor, Richard Schaal, dies in Woodland Hills, California, at age 86. He appeared in the TV shows The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Bob Newhart Show, Rhoda, Phyllis, and Trapper John, M.D. He was married to actress, Valerie Harper.

2014–S. Donald Stookey, inventor of Corning Ware, dies in Rochester, New York, at age 99.

2015–A building collapses in Lahore, Pakistan, killing at least 45 people and injuring at least 100 others.

2015–A cargo plane crashes shortly after takeoff from Juba International Airport in Juba, South Sudan, killing 37 people.

2015–Screenwriter, Melissa Mathison, dies of neuroendocrine cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 65. Her films include The Black Stallion, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Twilight Zone: The Movie, and The Indian in the Cupboard.

2016–The Paris Agreement enters into force. It is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on December 12, 2015.

2016–Conservative commentator, Tucker Carlson, will have his own nightly program on the Fox News Channel starting November 14th. Carlson is taking over the 7:00 p.m. ET time period long held by Greta Van Susteren, who left over a contract dispute.

2016–Dalian Wanda Group purchases Dick Clark Productions for $1 billion, moving the Chinese company into the television business for the first time.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Alfonso II of Naples; Mary II of England and William, Prince of Orange; Will Rogers; Reg Dean; original Bild Lillli and Barbie dolls; Martin Balsam; Doris Roberts; Robert Mapplethorpe; Cy Young; Ralph Macchio; Matthew McConaughey; Curtis Stone; George Klein with his motorized wheelchair; Sheree North; and multi-colored Corningware casserole dishes.

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