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1967–Davy Jones, of The Monkees, opens a boutique called Zilch I, in New York’s Greenwich Village. The opening party for Zilch includes Davy Jones, Peter Tork, David Pearl, Sally Field, and Lynne Randell. So many people showed up, that over 250 fans had to wait outside in the street because it was too full.

9–Vespasian, Roman Emperor, is born in Falacrina, Italy. He founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for 27 years.

474–Emperor Leo II dies after a reign of 10 months. He is succeeded by his father, Zeno, who becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

794–Emperor Kanmu of Japan changes his residence from Nara to Kyoto.

887–Emperor Charles the Fat is deposed by the Frankish magnates in an assembly at Frankfurt, Germany. His nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia, is elected as king of the East Frankish Kingdom.

1183–The Battle of Mizushima takes place on a small island off the coast of Shikoku, Japan.

1292–John Balliol becomes King of Scotland.

1405–Sharif ul-Hashim establishes the Sultanate of Sulu.

1511–Henry VIII of England concludes the Treaty of Westminster, a pledge of mutual aid against the French, with Ferdinand II of Aragon.

1525–Eleanor of Viseu dies in Portugal, at age 67. She was a Portuguese infanta (princess) and later queen consort of Portugal.

1558–Mary I England, first reigning Queen of Great Britain, dies at St. James's Palace in London, England, at age 42. Her executions of Protestants led to the posthumous label of "Bloody Mary." Despite numerous plots against her ascension, as well as attempts on her young life, Elizabeth I ascends the English throne upon the death of Queen Mary. She will reign for 45 years, during one of the greatest eras in English history.

1558–Despite numerous plots against her ascension, as well as attempts on her young life, Elizabeth I ascends the English throne upon the death of Queen Mary. She reigns for 45 years during one of the greatest eras in English history.

1603–English explorer, writer, and courtier, Sir Walter Raleigh, goes on trial for treason.

1749–Confectioner, Nicolas Appert, is born in Châlons-sur-Marne, France. In 1795, the French Military offered a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who could develop a method for long-term food preservation. Appert worked on the problem for 15 years before submitting his method for canning in glass jars. He won the prize on the condition that he make his method public, becoming known as the "Father of Canning."

1757–Maria Anna of Bavaria dies from a stroke in Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany, at age 58.

1777–The Articles of Confederation (of United States) are submitted to the states for ratification.

1796–Catherine the Great (Catherine II), Empress of Russia (1762-1796), dies from a stroke in Saint Petersburg, Russia, at age 67. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire and the Russian nobility.

1800–The U.S. Congress holds its first session in Washington, D.C.

1810–Sweden declares war on its ally, the United Kingdom, to begin the Anglo-Swedish War, although no fighting ever takes place.

1811–José Miguel Carrera, Chilean founding father, is sworn in as President of the executive Junta of the government of Chile.

1820–Captain Nathaniel Palmer becomes the first American to see Antarctica. The Palmer Peninsula is later named after him.

1831–Ecuador and Venezuela are separated from Gran Colombia.

1839–Oberto, Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, opens at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy.

1856–On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona, the U.S Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.

1858–This is the Modified Julian Day zero. Julian Day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period used primarily by astronomers.

1863–In the American Civil War, Confederate forces, led by General James Longstreet, place Knoxville, Tennessee, under siege.

1869–In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated.

1871–The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the state of New York.

1875–The American Theosophical Society is founded by Helena Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Steel Olcott. Theosophy would be a major spiritual trend in the 19th century.

1876–Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Slavonic March is given its premiere performance in Moscow, Russia.

1878–The first assassination attempt is made against Umberto I of Italy by anarchist, Giovanni Passannante, who was armed with a dagger. The King survives with a slight wound in one of his arms. Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli blocks the aggressor, receiving an injury in his leg.

1885–In the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the decisive Battle of Slivnitsa begins.

1894–H.H. Holmes, one of the first modern serial killers, is arrested in Boston, Massachusetts.

1896–The Western Pennsylvania Hockey League, which later became the first ice hockey league to openly trade and hire players, begins play at Schenley Park Casino in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1901–Acting teacher, Lee Strasberg, is born Israel Strassberg in Budzanów, Austria-Hungary. He is considered the “Father of Method Acting” in America. He co-founded, with directors Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, the Group Theatre in 1931, which was hailed as "America's first true theatrical collective." In 1951, he became director of the non-profit Actors Studio in New York City, considered "the nation's most prestigious acting school," and in 1966, he was involved in the creation of Actors Studio West in Los Angeles, California. Strasberg's personal papers, including photos, are archived at the Library of Congress. His daughter is actress, Susan Strasberg.

1903–The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party splits into two groups: The Bolsheviks (Russian for "majority") and Mensheviks (Russian for "minority").

1911–Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Incorporated, which is the first black Greek-lettered organization founded at an American historically black college or university, is founded on the campus of Howard University in Washington, D.C.

1916–Author and historian, Shelby Foote, is born Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. in Greenville, Mississippi. He wrote The Civil War: A Narrative, a massive, three-volume history of the war. Foote was relatively unknown to the general public for most of his life, until his appearance in Ken Burns' 1990 PBS documentary, The Civil War, where he introduced a generation of Americans to a war that he believed was "central to all our lives." Playwright and screenwriter, Horton Foote, is his third cousin: their great-grandfathers were brothers.

1918–The first jazz band performs in Paris, France.

1919–Sylvia Beach opens the doors of Shakespeare and Company, the first combination English-language bookshop and lending library in Paris, France. Ms. Beach will be a great friend to many American writers living in Paris, including Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald. She will also be the first to start and operate a small, independent publishing house, counting James Joyce’s, Ulysses, as one of her first published works.

1925–Actor, Rock Hudson, is born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr. in Winnetka, Illinois. He is generally known for his tall, dark, and handsome looks, and his roles as a leading man in the 1950s and 1960s. He appeared in the films Here Come the Nelsons, Magnificent Obsession, All That Heaven Allows, Giant, Written on the Wind, Battle Hymn, A Farewell to Arms, This Earth is Mine, Pillow Talk, Come September, Lover Come Back, Man’s Favorite Sport?, Send Me No Flowers, Strange Bedfellows, Seconds, Ice Station Zebra, Darling Lili, Pretty Maids All in a Row, and The Mirror Crack’d.

1929–Statistician and businessman, Herman Hollerith, dies of a heart attack in Washington, D.C., at age 69. He co-founded the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, later remaned IBM (International Business Machines Corporation). Hollerith is regarded as one of the seminal figures in the development of data processing. His invention of the punched card tabulating machine marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems that dominated in business for nearly a century.

1933–The United States recognizes the Soviet Union.

1936–Chef, Frédy Girardet, is born in Lausanne, Switzerland. Girardet cooked in the French tradition, and was known as a master of nouvelle cuisine. He was considered by many to be one of the greatest chefs of the 20th century. His eponymously named restaurant in Crissier, Switzerland, was thought by many to be the greatest restaurant in the world.

1937–Comedian, Peter Cook, is born in Torquay, England.

1938–Folksinger-songwriter, Gordon Lightfoot, is born in Orillia, Ontario. He is best known for his song If You Could Read My Mind.

1939–Nine Czech students are executed as a response to anti-Nazi demonstrations prompted by the death of Jan Opletal. All Czech universities are shut down and more than 1,200 students are sent to concentration camps.

1941–Gene Clark, of The Byrds, is born in Tipton, Missouri.

1942–Film director, Martin Scorsese, is born in Queens, New York.

1947–American scientists, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, observe the basic principles of the transistor, a key element for the electronics revolution of the 20th century.

1947–The Screen Actors Guild implements an anti-Communist loyalty oath.

1947–Robert "Stewkey" Antoni, vocalist and keyboardist with The Nazz, is born.

1950–Lhamo Dondrub is officially named the 14th Dalai Lama.

1951–Dean Paul Martin, of Dino, Desi & Billy, is born in Santa Monica, California. He was the son of actor-singer, Dean Martin.

1953–The remaining human inhabitants of the Blasket Islands, Kerry, Ireland, are evacuated to the mainland.

1957–Vickers Viscount G-AOHP of British European Airways crashes at Ballerup, after the failure of three engines on approach to Copenhagen Airport. The cause is a malfunction of the anti-icing system on the aircraft.

1962–President John F. Kennedy dedicates Washington Dulles International Airport, serving the region of Washington, D.C.

1967–Davy Jones, of The Monkees, opens a boutique called Zilch I, in New York’s Greenwich Village. The opening party for Zilch includes Davy Jones, Peter Tork, David Pearl, Sally Field, and Lynne Randell. So many people showed up, that over 250 fans had to wait outside in the street because it was too full.

1968–British European Airways introduces the BAC One-Eleven into commercial service.

1968–Viewers of the Raiders-Jets football game in the eastern United States are denied the opportunity to watch its exciting finish, when NBC-TV broadcasts the film Heidi instead, prompting changes to sports broadcasting in America.

1969–Negotiators from the Soviet Union and the United States meet in Helsinki, Finland, to begin SALT I negotiations aimed at limiting the number of strategic weapons on both sides.

1970–Lieutenant William Calley goes on trial for the My Lai Massacre.

1970–The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another heavenly body and is released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.

1970–Elton John records an album live, on what was WABC-FM in New York City. It marks the first time that a concert is aired live and recorded for release as aired. The LP is titled 11/17/70.

1973–In Orlando, Florida, President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors "I am not a crook."

1973–The Athens Polytechnic uprising against the military regime ends in a bloodshed in the Greek capital.

1973–The Mother, partner of Hindu guru Sri Aurobindo, dies at Sri Aurobindo’s Ashram in Auroville, India.

1978–The Star Wars Holiday Special airs on CBS-TV, receiving negative reception from critics, fans, and even Star Wars creator, George Lucas.

1979–The first stage of the Brisbane Suburban Railway Electrification, from Ferny Grove to Darra, is commissioned in Australia.

1979–John Glascock, bass player for Jethro Tull, dies of a congenital heart valve defect in London, England, at age 28.

1980–The John Lennon/Yoko Ono LP, Double Fantasy, is released in the U.S. and the U.K.

1982–Duk Koo Kim dies from injuries sustained during a 14-round boxing match against Ray Mancini in Las Vegas, Nevada, prompting reforms in the sport.

1983–The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded in Mexico.

1989–In Czechoslovakia, a student demonstration in Prague is quelled by riot police. This sparks an uprising aimed at overthrowing the communist government.

1990–David Crosby crashes his motorcycle in Los Angeles, California, and breaks his shoulder, left leg, and ankle. Police say the singer wasn't wearing a helmet.

1990–Fugendake, part of the Mount Unzen volcanic complex, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, becomes active and erupts.

1993–The U.S. House of Representatives passes a resolution to establish the North American Free Trade Agreement, after greater authority in trade negotiations was granted to President George Bush in 1991.

1993–In Nigeria, General Sani Abacha ousts the government of Ernest Shonekan in a military coup.

1997–In Luxor, Egypt, 62 people are killed by six Islamic militants outside the Temple of Hatshepsut.

1998–Actress, Esther Rolle, dies from complications of diabetes in Culver City, California, at age 78. She is best known for the role of Florida Evans on the TV sitcoms Maude and Good Times. She appeared in the films Nothing But a Man, Cleopatra Jones, The Mighty Quinn, Driving Miss Daisy, and How to Make an American Quilt.

2000–Alberto Fujimori is removed from office as president of Peru.

2000–A two-hour television special about the career of The Beatles and their impact upon world music and culture, “The Beatles Revolution,” is broadcast in the U.S. It is a joint production of ABC-TV and cable channel VH1, attracting an estimated 8.7 million viewers.

2000–A catastrophic landslide in Log pod Mangartom, Slovenia, kills seven people. It is one of the worst catastrophes in Slovenia in the past 100 years.

2012–At least 50 school children are killed in an accident at a railway crossing near Manfalut, Egypt.

2013–Fifty people are killed when Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashes at Kazan Airport in Russia.

2013–A rare late-season tornado outbreak strikes the Midwest. Illinois and Indiana are most affected with tornado reports as far north as lower Michigan. Around six dozen tornadoes touch down in approximately an 11-hour time period.

2014–Soul singer, Jimmy Ruffin, dies in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 78. His biggest hit was What Becomes of the Brokenhearted.

2016–The Three UK mobile phone company admits that there has been a cyber-security breach involving the details of millions of customers.

2016–James R. Clapper resigns as U.S. Director of National Intelligence.

2016–The dress worn by Marilyn Monroe as she famously sang “Happy Birthday” to President John. F. Kennedy sells for nearly $4.8 million at Julien’s Auctions in Los Angeles, California. It was sold to Ripley’s Believe It or Not.

2016–Around 100 migrants are feared to have drowned in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Libya.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Mary I of England; Catherine the Great; the National Rifle Association (NRA) logo; Shelby Foote; Rock Hudson; Gordon Lightfoot; Davy Jones at his boutique Zilch I in New York City; the LP 11/17/70 by Elton John; Mount Fugendake; and Jimmy Ruffin.

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